Ancient geographical places and tribes of  sindh   

M.H. Panhwar

 

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            History records different names of geographical places and tribes of Sindh, Southern Punjab and Baluchistan as they appear in Vedas (100-800 BC), Purans (600-500 BC), Mahabharata (400-200 BC), Ramayana (100 BC), Panini (400 BC), Periplus (100 BC - 50 AD), Ptolemy (140 AD) and Arab and Persian travellers (711-1000 AD). These are presented in table below:

Present Name

Vedic Name

Puranic Name

Mahabaharatan

Name

Ramayana

Name

Arabian sea (Greek Erythrean sea)

Paravat Samundra

 

 

 

 

Pascimasaga

Indus.

Sindhu

Sindhu

Sindhu

Sindhu

Jehlam.

Vitasta.

Vitasta

Vitasta

 

Chenab.

Askni.

Askni

Chandrabhaga

 

Ravi.

Parusni

Parusni

Iravali.

 

Beas.

Vipas

Vipas

Vipasa

 

Hakra.

Satudri

Satudri

Satudri

 

Sindh Western Rajputana.

Praticya.

 

 

 

Sibians.

Shalanas

 

 

 

D.G. Khan people.

Srinjava

 

 

 

Multanis

Yadu

 

 

 

Bahawalpurians and Bikanirians.

Puru

 

 

 

North Eastern Sindh upto Southern Border Nawabshah District.

 

 

 

 

 

Sauvira

 

Sauvira

Area from D.I. Khan to Larkana District.

 

 

 

Sindhu

 

Sindhu

Khirthar Range.

 

 

 

Somagiri.

Deltaic area of Indus i.e., Badin and Thatta District.

 

 

 

Barbara

Sindhsagra and also Sangama.

People of Thar (Sindh) and Indian desert.

 

 

 

Maru

The Punjab.

 

 

Panchanada

 

Present Sukkur and Hahwalpur Division a left bank of the Indus.

 

 

 

Sauvira

 

Sauvira

D.G. Khan, Jacobabad, Shikarpur and Larkana Dist. On Right Bank.

 

 

 

Sindhu

 

Central Sindh.

 

 

Sudra

 

Mahal Kohistan

 

 

Parda

 

People of Southern Thar Desert of Sindh and South West Indian Desert and Katch.

 

 

  

Abhiras

 

Saravati.

 

 

A town near Present Larkana.

 

Panjnad.

 

Panchnand

 

 

Indian Ocean (Greek Mare Prasodum).

 

Da Ksina Samundra

 

 

Deltaic area of Sindh and area along Rann of Kutch.

 

 

Barbara

(Barbarican?)

Sindh Sagra Sangam

Kathhiawar.

 

Surastra

Surastra

 

Deltaic town probably Barbarican.

 

 

Varana

 

People of Southern Thar and adjoining Indian Desert.

 

 

 

Kukura

 

People living on bank of Indus from the D.G. Khan to Kashmore.

 

 

 

Pancanads

 

 

7th to 6th century BC, some geographical names known from description of 16 Majananpadas by various sources.

Old Name

Location

Sauviva.

Sukkur, Rahim Yar Khan and Bahawalpur area.

Arithapura.

Sibi Town?

Puruka.

Rohri and Alore (Rohri came up in the 10th century).

Kaccha.

Kutch.

Saurastra

Katiawar.

Sindhu.

Indus.

Sindhu (country).

Larkana, Shikarpur, Jacobabad and D.I. Khan Districts on the right bank of the river Indus.

Sarsuti.

Part of the river Drishadvati through Bikanir.

Hakra.

The Drishadvati river through Cholistan  and Sindh.

Suturdi.

Sutlej.

Vipas.

Bias.

Parusni.

Ravi.

Asikni.

Chenab.

Vitasto.

Ravi.

 

560-325 BC, same geographic names as 8th-6th century BC, and with the following new names added form Panini’s grammar of Sanskrit, “Astadhyoya”.

Paninis name

Location

Gedrosra.

Maka or Makran.

Patala.

A new town possibly Brahmanabad or Panini’s Brahmanka Capital of parguna Brahmanka.

Brahmanka.

Area between Indus and Hakra in the central and lower Sindh on the left bank of the Indus called Brahmanabad parguna.

Sauviva.

Khairpur, Sukkur and Rahim Yar Khan District.

Paraskara.

People of southern Thar desert (Tharparkar district and adjoning Indian desert up to Luni).

Ruma.

Luni River.

Raunka.

Rohri or Alore?

Sakara.

Sukkur?

Indra Vakra.

Indian and Pakistani Baluchistan.

Sindhi Vaktra.

Deltaic area of Sindh.

Arbhat.

Southern Kohistani people of Sindh.

Candrabhaga.

Chenab river.

Other rivers.

Old names as in 6th century BC.

Sambhrayas.

People settled between Hakra and Indus in Sukkur and Rahim Yar Khan Districts (Sammas?)

Daru Kaccha.

Kathhiawar.

Kaccha.

Kutch

 

Geographical names of 5th and 4th centuries BC.

Paninis name

Location

Brahmanka.

Panini the Sanskrit grammarian of 5th and 4th centuries BC, mentions a town of Brahmanka and also a Parguna of Sindh called by the same name and occupying the present Hyderabad and Nawabshah and Sanghar districts on the left bank of the river Indus in the Central Sindh, Brahmanka would certainly be Brahhmanabad of later period.

Sindhu-Vaktra.

The coastal Districts i.e., Karachi, Thatta, and Badin. 

Arabhate.

Kohistan.

Sauvira.

Sukkur and Bahawalpur division on the left bank.

Sindhu.

The area from Panjnad to Sehwan on the right bank of the Indus.

Rann of Kutch.

A vest creek of sea and had fresh water in inundation months (June to September) brought by the Indus, the Hakra (Sarsuti) and the Luni rivers.

Pari Nagar.

A port was established on the coast of this creek showing that rain-fall had increased and travels through Thar Desert was common.

Opiai.

Hecateus based on Skylax (Greek Admiral of Derius-I)  describes a tribe Piai living on left bank of the Indus, having a strong fortreess at Brahmanka or Brahmanabad whhere Darius-I stationed troops. On the east of it was the Great South-Asian Desert.

 

Geographical names and their equivalents as per Roman and Greek writings (500 BC to 100 AD).

Roman and Greek Name

Modern Name

Erythrean Sea.

Arabian Sea.

Mare Prasodum.

Indian Ocean.

Gedrosia.

Makran.

Archosia.

Qandhar.

Gandhara.

Northern Punjab and NWFP.

Sinus Parsicus.

Persian Gulf.

Sinus Arabicus.

Red Sea.

Hindu (Indu).

Sindh.

 

200 BC - 200 AD geographical places during Bactrian Greek, Parthian and Scythian rule of South-Asia and their present equivalents.

Old Name

Modern Name

Barbarican.

Bhanbhore.

Barygaza.

Broach.

Erythean Sea (Greek).

Arabian Sea.

Indus.

Indus.

Hydruspes.

Jehlum.

Mare Prasodum.

Indian Ocean.

Minnagara.

?

Ozene.

Ujain.

Pura.

Kej.

Pasipeda.

Sehwan.

Sagala.

Aialkot.

Sarsuti.

Sarsuti.

Suvirva.

North Eastern Indus Plains of the Northern Sindh, Rahim Yar Khan and Parts of Bahawalpur District.

Sincus Gangeticus.

Bay of Bangal.

Rahamabaica.

Lasbella town.

Tarrobane.

Sri-Lanka.

 

Town of Sindh and adjoining areas on Ptolemy’s Geography (140 AD). 

The table below shows names of places in Sindh according to Ptolemy and possible modern locations and names.

Ptolemy’s

Equivalent by M.H. Panhwar

Mamados.

Hakra.

Oscan (Oxyanus).

Mahota.

Musarna (Mosikano).

Country of  Mokicnas.

Binagara.

Alore.

Kamigara.

North of Alore.

Kalaca (Krokalo).

Aban Shah.

Pisca.

Mohenjo Daro (Dhamraho jo Daro).

Arbita.

Khirthar range.

Sirastrene.

Kathiawar (Surat).

Indo-Sythia.

Sindh upto Multan.

Patala.

Brahmanabad.

Idris.

Ravi

Embolima.

Ambela village near Ambela Pass in Buner area.

Zaradros.

Sutlej.

Asigrama (Ausinda).

Uch Asgrauma is located below confluence of Punjab rivers with Indus and can only be Uch, which was on right bank then).

Sandabaslis.

Chenab.

Tiausa.

Sanskrit Cukhsa now called Chach above Attockon left bank.

Koas.

Kabul.

Aristobatbra.

Shahbazgarhin Ghandhara.

River South west of Pasipeda.

Gaj.

Azeica.

Oxycanus.

River south of Gommare.

Gomal.

River near Oscana.

Bolan or Ghar.

 

Ptolemy’s names and equivalent by Eggermont and M.H. Panhwar

Ptolemy’s

Equivalent by Eggermont

Equivalent by M.H. Panhwar

Pardabatha.`

Praesti-Prasiane, Porticanus.

(An island in the territory of Oxycanus).

Pisca.

 

Mohenjo Daro or Dhamraho jo Daro.

Pasipeda.

 

Sehwan.

Susicane

Musicana.

Probably area from Alore to Rahim Yar Khan.

Bonia.

 

 

Cocala.

Crocala.

Aban Shah (Lambrick) Karachi Bay (M.H. Panhwar).

Patala.

 

Brahmanabad

Barbia.

 

Barbarican (Banbhore).

Azeic

Axica Axycanus.

Khairpur, Noashero Feroz and Nawabshah Districts.

 

711-1000 AD from Arab Geographers maps or Arab Travellers Accounts.

            Name and places shown in Arab maps and modern equivalents:

Arab Name

Location

Mehran.

The Indus below Alore. An eastern branch of the Indus passed through Alore Gorge most probably since 5th century BC to 10th century AD.

Brahmanabad originally Brahmanka was renamed as Mansura.

A town going back to the 5th century BC as Panini calls it Brahmanka. The city survived 1500 AD years due to seasonal water supply one branch of the Indus passing to its east and joining Hakra.

Sharusan, or Sadusan.

Siwistan or Sehwan.

Nirun.

Some where on Ganjo Takar Hills and not necessary at the present site of Hyderabad but probbaly about 10 miles south.

Barbarican was renamed as Debal in 3rd to 7th centuries.

Most probably due to presence of Zuggurat or Synogoupe built by the Zoarostrians or Percran  Jews, who had a colony there, from 3rd century AD, untril its destruction in 1226 AD, at the hands of Jalauddin Khawarizm Shah.

Gulf of Turan.

Soanmiani Bay.

Armail.

At or near Lasbella.

Kambali.

At Soanmiani.

Usli.

Uthal.

Kasdan or Kusdar.

Khuzdar.

Kizkanan or Kaikan.

Kalat.

Mastanj.

Mastung.

Sindhu Sagara.

Sea near the delta of Indus.

Sindan.

A port on the western coast of Kutch.

Sea of Lar or Larawi.

The small sea surrounding Kathiawar.

The Sindu river.

The Indus above Alore.

 

Vitastal.

Jehlum.

Reported by Beruni

Candraha.

Chenab.

Irava.

Ravi.

Shauadar.

Sutlej.

Sarsuti.

Dry river except spill waters of the Sutlej and the Indus.

Baniya.

On the Eastern Puran and could be represent by Kahu-jo-Daro.

Panchanada.

Indus between Panjnad and Alore.

Lahorani.

Beruni (1030-1048) names a port of Loharani, probably an early port on the Indus delta. Later on for at least 600 years all ports on the main branch of the Indus were called Lahri Bander.

Multan.

Multan.

Uch.

Uch.

Basmad.

Bhatia or Batinda.

Mau.

(In Rahim Yar Khan District about 25 miles north of Sindh border).

Mathelo.

Mathelo.

Vinjrot.

(Ruins on Rainee River).

Dribh Dethari.

(Ruins south of Vinjrot on Rainee River).

Baghrrur.

Probably Rohri.

Alrud.

Alore (Ruins 4 miles form Rohri).

Mir Rukan.

(Ruins north of Nawabshah, but village of the same name exists).

Kalari.

(Ruins, in Deh Kalari district Nawabshah).

Abri.

(North of Kalari).

Mansura.

(Brahmanabad Ruins).

Baiaza/Dhaliya/Bania/

Manija.

In Vicinity of Mirpurkhas near Kahu-jo-Daro.

Kankot.

?

Neurnkot.

(Ruins probably near Khathar and not Hyderabad?).

Sudheran.

(Ruins near Mirpur Bathoro).

Budh jo Takar.

(Ruins in Badin District).

Talti.

Talti.

Gujo.

Gujo.

Tatar.

Thatta.

Manjabari.

Manghopir.

Sadusan.

Sehwan.

Pari Nagar.

Ruins near Virawah.

Virawah.

Virawah.

Naggar.

Nagar Parker.

Mastunj (Masih).

Mastung.

Boqan.

Sibi.

Kalat.

Kalat.

Kandabil.

Gandava.

Manzburd.

Panjgur.

Amrail/Armable.

Lasbella.

Kandrach

Hinglog.

Tez.

Gawadar.

Kez.

Kech (Near Turbat).

Qusdar.

Khuzdar.

Kirkanan/Kaikan.

Kalat District.

Bahr-e-Fars.

Arabian Sea (Persian Sea).

Gulf of Sindh.

Rann of Kutch.

Bodhia.

Sibi-Kachi and Kachho (piedmont) of Larkana District.

Samand.

?

Debal.

Bhanbhore ruins.

Sindon.

Sunjan.

Kabili.

Probably Thano Bula Khan/Thano Ahmed Khan.

Bandrah.

In Sindh Kohistan (probably Karchat).

Subari.

Near Sindhri on Koree Creek.

Alhaidrus.

Jaisalmir.

Cambaya.

Khumbhat.

Kumbal.

Khumbhat.

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